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德里纳河大桥2015年4月4日 20:14
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The KCLS data demonstrated that peer-rated personality traits predict mortality risk across a time span of 75 years. Furthermore, this study replicates and extends previous work on the importance of self-rated Big Five traits for mortality risk (e.g., Turiano, Chapman, Gruenewald, & Mroczek, 2013). Although self-ratings were associated with mortality risk in our study, peer ratings were stronger predictors. Our findings indicate that the predictive advantage of peer reports results from the increased reliability achieved by averaging multiple peer reports, although we cannot rule out the possibility that peers can identify unique information that people might not see in themselves (Vazire, 2010). Although peers were able to identify characteristics both positively and negatively related to mortality risk,k8.com凯发娱乐, the greatest mortality risk was associated with low peer ratings for conscientiousness (see Table 1). Overall, these findings demonstrate the utility of informant reports in the study of health and provide further evidence that personality traits are fundamental to the health process. The present study is one of the longest studies of mortality risk to date, spanning more than 75 years. It complements the only two other long-term studies of mortality risk and personality: the Terman Life Cycle study (Martinet al., 2007) and the Lotharian birth cohort study (Dearyet al., 2008). Using data from long-standing studies is necessary to address discrepancies found in previous studies that call into question what personality traits predict mortality risk (Jokela et al., 2013; Roberts et al.,2007), because long-standing studies can safeguard against biasing factors (e.g., reverse causality). Our results are consistent with results from both the Terman and Lotharian samples: Among the Big Five personality traits, conscientiousness is most strongly associated with mortality risk. In addition, in our study, both self- and peer-rated male openness predicted mortality risk, which is especially noteworthy given that the Terman and Lotharian studies did not include assessments of openness. Predictors of mortality risk were different for women than for men; among women, only peer ratings, not self-ratings, were associated with mortality risk. These results must be interpreted within the historical context of this cohort, the members of which reached adulthood in the first few decades of the 20th century. Only a minority of female KCLS participants had an occupation other than being a housewife. It is likely that high levels of peer-rated emotional stability and agreeableness reduced mortality risk because they largely reflect positive characteristics indicative of a supportive and easy-going wife, such as the characteristics described in the social theory of the time. For example, Bales (1951) described women as socioemotional leaders and men as task leaders. Despite the many advantages of this multireport,k8.com凯发娱乐, long-term study of mortality risk, it has some limitations. The sample consists of White individuals from New England and is therefore not fully representative of the North American population. Furthermore, the archival nature of the study makes it impossible to know some important characteristics of the raters, such as their length of acquaintance with the participants. Finally,k8.com凯发娱乐, it is unclear whether the mechanisms that link personality and longevity (e.g., health behaviors; Lodi-Smith et al., 2010) are the same when personality is assessed by peer ratings as when it is assessed by self-ratings. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the processes that relate personality with longevity are visible to observers and are better assessed through multiple peer reports of personality than through self-reports alone. Thus, to best understand the processes linking personality with health and the relevance of personality traits for public-health issues (Cuijpers et al., 2010), researchers need to use multiple methods of personality assessment.

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